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Reusing Material Published in ESA Journals

Reuse of Published Figures, Tables, and Text Excerpts

Readers who wish to reuse material from papers published in Ecological Society of America (ESA) journals should obtain permission by visiting the Wiley Online Library page for the manuscript in question. Select the “Tools” option in the toolbar shown on the HTML copy of the paper and then select “Request Permission”. This will begin the process of obtaining any necessary permissions to reuse material.

Authors do not need to request permission to reuse material from manuscripts they co-authored. Authors retain the right to quote from, reprint, translate, and reproduce their work, in part or in full, in any book or article they may later write or in any public presentation, so long as they properly cite the original work.

Please visit the Wiley rights and permissions portal for a full list of scenarios regarding reuse and reproduction of published material.

Reuse of Published Papers

Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of papers published in journals of the Ecological Society of America for personal use or educational use within one’s home institution is granted to ESA members without fee, provided that the first page or initial screen of a display includes the notice “Copyright by the Ecological Society of America,” along with the full citation, including the name of the author(s). Copyrights for components of a work owned by others than ESA must be honored.

Authors may post their articles to their personal or home institution’s website or institutional repository and may make and distribute photocopies of such articles. Instructors may post up to 10 articles from ESA publications to a publicly available class website, or an unlimited number of articles to a website or other electronic medium with access restricted to their class. Interlibrary loan is permitted so long as U.S. copyright regulations on fair use are observed and all interlibrary loan is done by print or fax rather than in a digital format. To copy or transmit otherwise, to republish, to post on public servers, to redistribute to lists, or to use any component of an article from an ESA journal in other works, or to use such an article for commercial or promotional purposes, requires prior specific permission and possible fee. Permissions may be obtained through the Copyright Clearance Center (

Photographs and Illustrations

Any photographs or illustrations appearing in a manuscript that were taken or produced by individuals who are not coauthors of the manuscript must be accompanied by confirmation of permission for use in the manuscript. Acknowledgment of the photographer or illustrator should appear in the caption but is not sufficient for use. Documentation of permission should be included as an “Additional file NOT for Review and NOT for publication.”

Including Previously Published Material in a Submission

ESA journals require that all submissions be original contributions, with full disclosure of any possible redundant publication accompanying the submission.

Reusing Published Items

Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce any previously published or copyrighted material included in their submission. Acknowledgment alone is not sufficient; authors must obtain permission to reuse material and provide documentation.

Permissions for reusing previously published items must be included with your initial submission. Documentation of permission should include a signed affirmation by the copyright owner of the material. This documentation should be included with your submission as an “Additional file NOT for Review and NOT for Publication”.

What Constitutes “Prior Publication”?

Under certain circumstances, use of the same data in two or more publications is appropriate and beneficial. This may be particularly true when new information allows reinterpretation of previously published data. In many cases, however, duplicate publication is wasteful of journal space and user resources. Although it is the Editors’ responsibility to decide whether specific duplications are useful or wasteful, these decisions are generally based on information supplied by the authors.

Sometimes it is difficult to assess whether a work has truly been published previously. If a previous work was published in a journal or book that is already available in libraries, or is available for libraries to purchase, we expect no more than one-third overlap between the previous publication and the new manuscript submission.

Reference should be made to any closely related previous publication(s), especially if a table or figure is reproduced. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce previously published material.

Thesis or “Working Paper”

A posting of a manuscript or thesis on an author’s personal or home institution’s website or FTP site generally will not be considered previous publication. Similarly, posting of a “working paper” in an institutional repository is allowed so long as at least one author is affiliated with that institution.

Figures, Tables, and Text Excerpts

Authors must obtain permission to reuse any figure, table, or text excerpt of more than 250 words that has been previously published in another paper.

Previously Published Data

If any data in a manuscript have been included in other published or unpublished manuscripts, the caption of each table or figure reporting such data must cite those manuscripts. Authors are also required to cite published data appropriately following the guidelines of the ESA Open Research policy.

Disclosure of Overlap

At the time of submission, authors must provide information describing the extent to which data, text, or figures in the manuscript have been used in other papers that are published, in press, submitted, or soon to be submitted elsewhere. Authors should provide this information in the “Dual Publication” field of the ScholarOne online submission form.

In cases of overlap with other publications or submissions, authors should include copies of said papers with the current submission and explain their inclusion and the overlap in the cover letter. These copies should be designated as an “Additional File NOT for Review and NOT for publication” in the file list.