Books, Articles & Reports

Abramovitz, J. N. 1996. Sustaining freshwater ecosystems. Pages 60–77 in Brown et al., editors. State of the world 1996. World Watch Institute Report. W. W. Norton and Company, New York, NY, USA.

Adey, W.H. and K. Loveland. 1998. Dynamic Aquaria Building Living Ecosystems. Academic Press, New York.

Brinson, M. M. 1993. Changes In the Functioning of Wetlands Along Environmental Gradients. Wetlands 13:65-74.

Carpenter, S. R., N. F. Caraco, D. L. Correll, R. W. Howarth, A. N. Sharpley, and V. H. Smith. 1998. Nonpoint Pollution of Surface Waters with Phosphorus and Nitrogen. Ecological Applications 8(3):559–568.

Corbitt, R.A. and P.T Bowen,. 1994. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. In D.M. Kent ed. Applied Wetlands Science and Technology. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton.

Costanza, R. and C. Folke. 1997. Valuing Ecosystem Services With Efficiency, Fairness and Sustainability as Goals. Pg. 49-68. In G. C. Daily ed. Natures Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington DC.

Costanza, R., R. d'Arget, R. de Groot, S. Faber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, T. V. O'Neill, J. Paruelo, R. Raskin, R. Sutton, and M. Van den Belt. 1997. The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital. Nature Magazine 16 (18).

Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F.C. Golet, and E.T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Department of Interior, Washington, DC.

Daily, G.C. 1997. Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington DC.

EPA 1993. The Role and Function of Forest Buffers In the Chesapeake Bay Basin for Non-Point Source Management. EPA, Annapolis, MD, Chesapeake Bay Program Report. CBP/TRS 91/93.

EPA 1995. Wetlands Fact Sheet. EPA 843-F-95-001.

EPA 1999. Riparian Forest Buffers: Linking Land and Water. EPA, Annapolis, MD, Chesapeake Bay Program Report. CBP/TR S 220/99, EPA 903-R-99-002.

Ewel, K. C. and H. T. Odum. 1979. Cypress Domes: Nature's Tertiary Treatment Filter. Pg. 103–114. In W. E. Sopper and S. N. Kerr eds. Utilization of Municipal Sewage Effluent and Sludge on Forest and Disturbed Land. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.

Ewel, K.C. 1988. The Use of Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Water Quality Bulletin 13:21–24/32.

Ewel, K.C. 1997. Water Quality Improvement by Wetlands. Pg. 329–344. In G. C. Daily ed. Natures Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington DC.

Fetter, C. W. Jr., W. E. Sloey, and F. L. Spangler. 1976. Wastewater Treatment by Natural and Artificial Marshes. US National Technical Information Service. Pub. No. PB 259–992. Springfield, VA. 180 Pg.

Francy, D.S, Myers, D.N, Helsel, D.R. 2000. Microbiological Monitoring for the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. US Geological Survey Water Resources Investigation Report # 00-4018.


Fritz, W.R., and S.C. Helle. 1979. Natural Tertiary Treatment of Secondary Effluents by Wetlands. In: J.C. Sutherland and R.H. Kadlec eds. Wetlands Utilization for Management of Community Wastewater. Abstracts of a conference held 10–12 July 1979 at Higgins Lake, MI.

Gleick, P. H. 1993. Water in crisis: A guide to the World's Freshwater Resources. Oxford University Press. New York, NY.

Gleick, P. H. 1998. The World's water 1998–1999: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Good, R.E., Whigham, D.F., and R.L Simpson,. 1978. Freshwater Wetlands: Ecological Processes and Management Potential. Academic Press, New York, NY.

Goulder, L. and D. Kennedy. 1997. Valuing Ecosystem Services: Philosophical Bases and Empirical Methods. Pg. 23-48. In G. C. Daily ed. Natures Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington DC.

Graetz, D.A., P.A. Krottje, N.L. Erickson, J.G.A. Fiskell, and D.F. Rothwell. 1980. Denitrification in Wetlands as a Means of Water Quality Improvement. Water Resources Research Center, University of Florida, Gainesville 48:86.

Hager, S.W. and L.E Schemel,. 1992. Sources of Nitrogen and Phosphorus to Northern San Francisco Bay. Estuaries 15 (1): 40–52.

Haslam, S.M. 1997. The River Scene: Ecology and Cultural Heritage. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hawken, P. 1997. Natural Capitalism. Mother Jones Magazine. Pp. 40–52, March/April.

Johnston, C. A., N. E. Detenbeck, and G. J. Niemi. 1990. The Cumulative Effect of Wetlands on Stream Water Quality and Quantity: A Landscape Approach. Biogeochemistry 10:105–141.

Johnston, C. A. 1991. Sediment and Nutrient Retention by Freshwater Wetlands: Effects on Surface Water Quality. Critical Reviews in Environmental Control 21:491–565.


Kadlec, R.H. and Hammer, D.E. 1988. Modeling Nutrient Behavior in Wetlands. Ecological Modeling. 40 (1): 37–66.

Lapointe, B.E. and Clark, M.W. 1992. Nutrient Inputs From the Watershed and Coastal Eutrophication in the Florida Keys. Estuaries 15 (4): 465–476.

Lowrance, R. 1998. Riparian Forest Ecosystems as Filters for Nonpoint-Source Pollution. Pp. 113–141. In M.L. Pace and P.M. Groffman eds. Success, Limitations and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.

Lowrance, R., R. Todd, J. Fail, O. Hendrickson, R. Leonard, and L. Asmussen. 1984. Riparian Forests as Nutrient Filters in Agricultural Watersheds. BioScience 34 (6).

Melillo, J.M. 1999. Warm, Warm on the Range. Science Magazine 283:183–184.

Mitsch, W.J., J.K. Cronk, X. Wu, R.W. Nairn, and D.L Hey. 1995. Phosphorus Retention in Constructed Freshwater Riparian Marshes. Ecological Applications 5(3): 830–845.

Mitsch, W.J., J.W. Day Jr., J.W. Gilliam, P.M. Groffman, D.L. Hey, G.W. Randall, and N. Wang (1999). Reducing Nutrient Loads, Especially Nitrate-Nitrogen Loads to Surface Water, Ground Water, and the Gulf of Mexico, Topic 5 Report of the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. NOAA Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. 17. NOAA Coastal Ocean Program, Silver Spring, MD.

Mitsch, W.J., Gosselink, James G. 1993. Wetlands. 2nd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

Naiman, R.J., Magnuson, J.J., McKnight, D.M., Stanford, J.A. 1995. The Freshwater Imperative: A Research Agenda. Island Press, Washington, DC.

National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

National Research Council. 1992. Water transfers in the West. National Academy Press. Washington D. C., USA.


National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

New York City Department of Environmental Protection. 1997. Watershed Agreement Overview of the 1997 Watershed Agreement. Corona, New York.

Nichols, D.S. 1980. Nutrient Removal From Wastewater by Wetlands. Paper presented at the 6th International Peat Congress, August 17–23. Duluth, MN. Pg 23.

Noller, B.N., P.H. Woods, and B.J. Ross. 1994. Case Studies of Wetland Filtration of Mine Waste Water In Constructed and Naturally Occurring Systems in Northern Australia. Water Science Technology 29: 257–266.

National Research Council. 1992. Water transfers in the West. National Academy Press. Washington D. C., USA.

Office of Science and Technology. 1993. Preparing for an Uncertain Climate. United States Congress. OTA-O-568 2:164.

Pace, M.L. and Groffman, P.M., 1998. Successes, Limitations, and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science. Springer-Verlag Press, New York, NY.

Perry, D.A., 1994. Forest Ecosystems. Johns Hopkins Press. Baltimore, MD.

Peterjohn, W.T. and D.L Correll, D.L. 1984. Nutrient Dynamics in an Agricultural Watershed; Observations on the Role of a Riparian Forest. Ecology 65(5).

Pimentel, D., C. Wilson, C. McCullem, R. Huang, P. Dwen, J. Flack, Q Tran, T. Saltman, and B. Cliff. 1997. Economic and Environmental Benefits of Biodiversity. BioScience 7 (11).

Postel, S. and S. Carpenter. 1997. Freshwater Ecosystem Services. Pg. 195–214. In G.C Daily ed. Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington, DC.

President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. 1998. Teaming with Life: Investing in Science to Understand and Use America's Living Capital (web site:ŠEnvironment?html/teamingcover.html).


Pringle, C. M. 2000. Threats to U.S. Public Lands From Cumulative Hydrological Alterations Outside of Their Boundaries. Ecological Applications 10 (4):971–989.

Pringle, C. M. , Freeman, M. C. and B. J. Freeman. 2000. Regional Effects of Hydrologic Alterations on Riverine Macrobiota in the New World: Tropical-Temperate Comparisons. BioScience 50(9): 807–823.

Pringle, C. M. 1997. Exploring How Disturbance is Transmitted Upstream: Going Against the Flow. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16:425–438.

Salzman, J. 1998. Ecosystem Services and the Law. Conservation Biology 12 (3).

Shantz, M.K. 1998. Removal of Waterborne Pathogens in Vegetative Wetlands. Abstract for American Society for Microbiology Conference 1998. (web site:

Shiklomanov, I.A.1993. World Freshwater Resources. Pg. 13–14. In P.H. Gleick ed. Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Freshwater Resources. Oxford University Press, New York.

Sullivan, T. 1997. Environmental Law Handbook. Government Institutes, Inc. Rockville, MD.

Tilton, D.L. 1979. The Utilization of a Fresh-Water Wetlands for Nutrient Removal from Secondarily Treated Waste Water Effluent. Journal of Environmental Quality 8(3).

Tippie, V.K. 1984. Environmental Characterization of Chesapeake Bay and a Framework for Action. Pg. 467–487. In The Estuary as a Filter. Academic Press, Orlando, FL.


Tunney, H., O. T. Carton, P. C. Brookes, and A. E. Johnston. 1997. Phosphorus Loss from Soil to Water. CAB International, New York.

Vileisis, Anne. 1997. Discovering the Unknown Landscape: A History of America's Wetlands. Island Press. Washington, DC.

Vitousek, P. M., J. D. Aber, R. W. Howarth, G. E. Likens, P. A. Matson, D. W. Schindler, W. H. Schlesinger and D. Tilman. 1997. Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle: Sources and Consequences. Ecological Applications 7(3): 737–750.

Zedler, JD., M.Q. Fellows, and S. Trnka. 1998. Wastelands to Wetlands: Links Between Habitat Protection and Ecosystem Science. Pg. 69–112. In M.L Pace and P.M. Groffman eds. Success, Limitations and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.

Zedler, J.B., 1996. Ecological Issues In Wetland Mitigation: An Introduction to the Forum. Special Issue. Ecological Applications 6(1): 33–37.