Conclusions

Pollination is an essential ecosystem service, vital to humans and to the stability of natural environments. This is not an esoteric issue of interest to researchers; pollinator conservation is an issue that has direct links with our everyday lives. The potential loss of pollinators and pollination services poses serious economic and social consequences for humans. Yet the risk remains largely unrecognized. Due to its far-reaching impacts, dealing with a decline in pollination services will require efforts at the local, regional, national, and international levels.

We should not underestimate the significance of pollination services or delay steps to ensure their sustainability. As two notable pollination researchers, Carol Kearns and David Inouye, put it: “Predicting the effects of the loss of a particular pollinator is extremely difficult, but it is important to remember that no species exists in isolation. Each is part of an ecological web, and as we lose more and more pieces of that web, the remaining structure must eventually collapse”.94 Within this context, and given the current global biodiversity crisis in which localized pollinator declines persist, now is the time to raise awareness, stimulate actions, and expedite additional research.