Books, Articles, and Reports

Allen-Wardell, G. et al. 1998. "The Potential Consequences of Pollinator Declines on the Conservation of Biodiversity and Stability of Food Crop Yields," Conservation Biology 12: 8–17.

Banack, S.A. 1998. "Diet Selection and Resource Use by Flying Foxes (Genus Pteropus)," Ecology 79(6): 1949–1967.

Barth, F. 1985. Insects and Flowers: The Biology of a Partnership. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Bond, W.J. 1995. "Assessing the Risk of Plant Extinction Due to Pollinator and Disperser Failure," in Extinction Rates, J.G. Lawton and R.M. May. eds.. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, pp. 131–143.

Bond, W.J. 1994. Do Mutualisms Matter? Assessing the Impact of Pollinator and Disperser Disruption on Plant Extinction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 344: 83–90.

Bronstein, J.L. 1994. "The Plant-Pollinator Landscape," in Mosaic Landscapes and EcologicalProcesses, L. Hansson, I. Fahrig, and G. Merriam eds., London, U.K.: Chapman and Hall, pp. 256–288.

Buchmann, S.L. 1996. "Competition Between Honey Bees and Native Bees in the Sonoran Desert and Global Bee Conservation Issues," in The Conservation of Bees, A. Matheson et al. eds. New York: Academic Press, pp.125–142.

Buchmann, S.L., and G.P. Nabhan. 1996. The Forgotten Pollinators. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Burd, M. 1994. "Bateman's Principle and Plant Reproduction: The Role of Pollen Limitation in Fruit and Seed Set," Botanical Review 60(1): 83–112.

Burger, W.C. 1981. "Why Are There So Many Flowering Plants?" BioScience 31(8): 572–580.

Butz Huryn, V.M. 1997. "Ecological Impacts of Introduced Honey Bees," The Quarterly Review of Biology 72(3): 275–297.

Cane, J.H. 1997. "Lifetime Monetary Value of Individual Pollinators: The Bee Habropoda laboriosa at Rabbiteye Blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade)," Acta Horticulturae 446: 67–70.

Corbet, Sarah. 1996. "Which Bees do Plants Need?" in The Conservation of Bees, A. Matheson et al. eds. New York: Academic Press, pp.105–113.

Corbet, S., I.H. Williams, J.L. Osborne 1991. "Bees and the Pollination of Crops and Wild Flowers in the European Community," Bee World 72: 47–59.

Costanza, R., and C. Folke. 1997. "Valuing Ecosystem Services with Efficiency, Fairness and Sustainability as Goals," in Nature's Services, G. Daily ed. Washington D.C.: Island Press, pp.49–68.

Costanza, R. et al. 1997. "The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital," Nature 387(15 May 1997): 253–260.

Faegri K. and L. van der Pijl, 1971. The Principles of Pollination Ecology. Oxford, U.K.: Pergamon Press.

Fleming, T. 1993. "Plant-Visiting Bats," American Scientist 81: 460–467.


Folke, C., et al. 1993. "Biodiversity Conservation with a Human Face: Ecology, Economics and Policy," Ambio 22(2-3):62–63.

Free, J.B. 1993. Insect Pollination of Crops. London: Academic Press.

Fujita, M.S., and M. Tuttle. 1991. "Flying Foxes: Threatened Animals of Key Ecological and Economic Importance," Conservation Biology 5(4): 455–461.

Groom, M.J. 1998. "Allee Effects Limit Population Viability of an Annual Plant," American Naturalist 151(6): 487–496.

Gross, C.L., and D. Mackay. 1998. "Honeybees Reduce Fitness in the Pioneer Shrub Melastoma affine (Melastomataceae)," Biological Conservation 86: 169–178.

Hammond, P.C., and J.C. Miller. 1998. "Comparison of the Biodiversity of Lepidoptera within Three Forested Ecosystems," Annals of The Entomological Society of America 91(3): 323–328.

Hubbell, S. 1997. "Trouble with Honey Bees," Natural History 5/97: 32–43.

Ingram, M., et al. 1996. "Ten Essential Reasons to Protect the Birds and the Bees: How an Impending Pollination Crisis Threatens Plants and the Food on Your Table," Forgotten Pollinators Campaign. Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson.

Janzen, D.H. 1979. "How to Be a Fig," Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 10: 13–51.

Johansen, C.A. 1977. "Pesticides and Pollinators," Annual Review of Entomology 22: 177–192.

Kearns, C.A., D.W. Inouye, and N. Waser. 1998. "Endangered Mutualisms: The Conservation of Plant-Pollinator Interactions," Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 83–112.

Kearns, C.A., and D. Inouye. 1997. "Pollinators, Flowering Plants and Conservation Biology," BioScience 47: 297–397.


Kevan, P.G. 1991. "Pollination: Keystone Process in Sustainable Global Productivity," Acta Horticulturae 288: 103–109.

Kevan, P.G. 1975. "Pollination and Environmental Conservation," Environmental Conservation 2(4): 293–297.

Kunzmann, M.R., et al. 1995. "Africanized Bees in North America," in Our Living Resources, E. LaRoe, et al. eds., Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior – National Biological Service, pp. 448-451.

Matheson, A., S.L. Buchmann, C. O'Toole, P. Westrich, I.H. Williams eds. 1996. The Conservation of Bees. New York: Academic Press.

Myers, N. 1993. "Biodiversity and the Precautionary Principle," Ambio 22(23): 74–79.

Nabhan, G.P., and S.L. Buchmann. 1997. "Services Provided by Pollinators," in Nature's Services, G. Daily ed. Washington D.C.: Island Press, pp. 133–150.

Nabhan, G.P. 1996. Pollinator Redbook Vol. 1: Global List of Threatened Vertebrate Wildlife Species Serving as Pollinators for Crops and Wild Plants. Tuscon, Ariz.: Arizona-Sonoran Desert Museum and Forgotten Pollinator Monograph.

Nabhan, G.P. and T. Fleming. 1993. "The Conservation of New World Mutualisms," Conservation Biology 7(3): 457–459.

Nason, J.D., E. Allen Herre, J.L. Hamrick. 1998. "The Breeding Structure of a Tropical Keystone Plant Resource," Nature 391: 685–687.

Osborne, J.L., I.H. Williams, S.A. Corbet. 1991. "Bees, Pollination and Habitat Change in the European Community," Bee World 72: 99–119.

Parmesan, C., et al. 1999. "Poleward Shifts in Geographical Ranges of Butterfly Species Associated with Regional Warming," Nature 399(10 June 1999): 579–583.

Peterson, S.S., C.R. Baird, and R.M. Bitner. 1992. "Current Status of the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee, Megachile rotundata, as a Pollinator of Alfalfa Seed," Bee Science 2: 135–142.


Prescott-Allen, C., and R. Prescott-Allen 1986. The First Resource: Wild Species in the North American Economy. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

Pratt, N.C., and A.M. Peters. 1995. "Pollination: The Art and Science of Floral Sexuality," Zoogoer 24(4).

Rathcke, B.J. and E.S. Jules. 1993. "Habitat Fragmentation and Plant-Pollinator Interactions," Current Science 65(3): 273–277.

Reid, W.V. 1998. "Capturing the Value of Ecosystem Services to Protect Biodiversity," To be published in: Managing Human Dominated Ecosystems, Island Press, Washington D.C. and Missouri Botanical Gardens, St. Louis, Missouri.

Ren, D. 1998. "Flower-Associated Brachycera Flies as Fossil Evidence for Jurassic Angiosperm Origins," Science 280: 85–88.

Roubik, D.W. 1983. "Experimental Community Studies: Time-Series Tests of Competition Between African and Neotropical Bees," Ecology 64(5): 971–978.

Rusterholz, H.P., and A. Erhardt. 1998. "Effects of Elevated CO2 on Flowering Phenology and Nectar Production of Nectar Plants Important to Butterflies of Calcareous Grasslands," Oecologia 113: 341–349. Siebert, J.W. 1980. "Beekeeping, Pollination and Externalities in California Agriculture," American Journal of Agricultural Economics 62(2):165–171.

Smith, T.B., et al. 1995. "Evolutionary Consequences of Extinctions in Populations of a Hawaiian Honeycreeper," Conservation Biology 9(1): 107–113.

Southwick, E.E., and L. Southwick Jr. 1992. "Estimating the Economic Value of Honey Bees as Agricultural Pollinators in the United States," Economic Entomology 85(3): 621–633.

Sugden, E.A. 1985. "Pollinators of Astragalus monoensis Barneby (Fabaceae): New Host Records; Potential Impact of Sheep Grazing," Great Basin Naturalist 45: 299–312.


Torchio, P.F. 1991. Bees as Crop Pollinators and the Role of Solitary Species in Changing Environments. Acta Horticulturae 288: 49–61.

Visscher, P.K., and T.D. Seeley. 1982. "Foraging Strategy of Honeybee Colonies in a Temperate Deciduous Forest," Ecology 63(6): 1790–1801.

Walter, K.S., and H.J. Gillett, eds. 1997. IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland.

Wantanabe, M.E. 1994. "Pollination Worries Rise as Honey Bees Decline," Science 265(26 August 1994): 1170.

Waser, N.M. 1998. "Pollination, Angiosperm Speciation, and the Nature of Species Boundaries," Oikos 81(2): 198–201.

Wiebes, J.T. 1979. "Co-Evolution of Figs and their Insect Pollinators," Annual Review of Ecology and Systemmatics 10: 1–12.

Withgott, J. 1999. "Pollination Migrates to Top of Conservation Agenda," BioScience 49(11): 857-862.

Woodier, O. 1998. "How to Protect Our Imperiled Pollinators," National Wildlife 36(2): 36–46.