Some of the Key Players

Government:

 Environmental Protection Agency (EP A)
* 1200 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Washington DC 20460 * 202-260-2090 * www.epa.gov

Chesapeake Bay Program, EPA
* 410 Severn Ave Suite 109, Annapolis City Marine, Annapolis, MD 21403 * 800.YOURBAY *

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
*14th St & Constitution Ave NW, Washington, DC 20230 * 202-482-6090 *

National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA (NMFS)
*1305 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD  20910 * 301-713-3100 *

U.S. Department of Interior
*1849 C St., NW, Washington, DC 20240 * 202-208-3100*

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)
* Department of Interior, 1849 C St. NW, Washington, DC 20240 * 202-208-5634

U.S. Geological Survey
* 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 20192 * 703-648-4000 or 888-ASK-USGS

U.S. National Park Service, Department of Interior (NPS)
* 1849 C Street, NW, Washington, DC 20240 * 202-208-3100 *

Ocean Studies Board, National Academy of Sciences (NAS)
* 500 Fifth St., NW Room 752, Washington, DC 20001 * 202-334-2714

NGOs

Chesapeake Bay Foundation
*Philip Merrill Environmental Center, 6 Herndon Avenue, Annapolis, MD 21403 * 410-268-8816 *

Environmental Defense
*1875 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20009 *202-387-3500 *

SeaWeb
*8401 Colesville Road | Suite 500, Silver Spring, MD 20910* 301-495-9570*

The Nature Conservancy (TNC)
* 4245  North Fairfax Drive, Arlington, VA 22203 * 703-841-5300 *

The Ocean Conservancy (TOC)
*1300 19th Street, NW, 8th Floor, Washington, DC 20037 * 202-429-5609 or 800-519-1541 *

Wetland Science Institute
* 11400 American Holly Drive, Laurel, MD 20708-4014 * 301-497-5938 *

World Resources Institute (WRI)
* 10 G Street, NE Suite 800, Washington, DC 20002 * 202/729-7641* 

World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
* 1250 24th St NW, Washington, DC 20016 * 202.248*1400 *

Estuarine Research Federation
* PO Box 510, Port Republic, MD 20676 * 410.586.0997 *

Some Researchers in the Field

Kenneth Able, Rutgers University Marine Field Station
Jackie Alder, University of British Columbia
Michael W. Beck, University of California at Santa Cruz
Chuck Birkeland, USGS at University of Hawaii
Jim Bohnsack, NMFS Miami Florida
Walter Boyton, University of Maryland
Felicia Coleman, Florida State University
James Cowan, Louisiana State University
John Day, Louisiana State University
Paul Dayton, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Linda Deegan, Marine Biological Labs, Woods Hole
Katherine Ewel, USDA
Jim Good, U. Oregon
Rudolf de Groot, Wageningen University, Netherlands
Kenneth Heck, Jr., Dauphin Island Sea Lab, University of South Alabama
Steve Palumbi, Stanford University Hopkins Marine Station
Scott Nixon, University of Rhode Island
Alex Yanez-Arancibia, Instituto de Ecologia, A.C. Unidad de Ecosistemas Costeros
A useful site, managed by International Oceanographic Commission, allows a keyword search on ‘fish habitat’ or ‘nurseries’ and will identify listed experts:
Ocean experts: the global directory of marine and freshwater professionals

Journals  

(Note: there are no scientific journals specializing in marine nurseries or even in coastal habitats more generally. The following journals publish occasional articles of relevance.)

Aquatic Conservation: Freshwater and Marine Systems
Bulletin of Marine Science
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
Coastal Management
Conservation Biology
Coral Reefs
Ecological Applications
Ecological Engineering
Ecology
Environmental Biology of Fishes
Environmental Management
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Estuaries and Coasts
Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science
Fisheries: Journal of the American Fisheries Society
Fisheries Management and Ecology
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Journal of Environmental Quality
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Limnology and Oceanography
Marine Ecology Progress Series
Marine Policy
Ocean and Coastal Management
Restoration Ecology
Restoration Ecology
Transaction of the American Fisheries Society
Trends in Ecology and Evolution
Wetlands
Wetlands Ecology and Management

Selected Key Publications

Able, K. and M. Fahay. 1998. The First Year in the Life of Estuarine Fishes in the Middle Atlantic Bight. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Barnes, C., and K.W. McFadden. 2008. Marine ecosystem approaches to management: Challenges and lessons in the United States. Marine Policy  323(3),:387-392.

Beck, M., K.L. Heck, K.W. Able, D.L. Childers, D.B. Eggleston, B.M. Gillanders, B. Halpern, C.G. Hays, K. Hoshino, T.J. Minello, R.J. Orth, P.F. Sheridan, and M.P. Weinstein.  2001. The identification, conservation, and management of estuarine and marine nurseries for fish and invertebrates. BioScience 51(8):6-33-641.

Bennett, E. M., G.D. Peterson, and L.J. Gordon. 2009. Understanding relationships among multiple ecosystem services. Ecology Letters 12(12):1394-1404.

Birkeland, C. and A.M. Frielander. 2002. The importance of refuges for reef fish replenishment in Hawai’i. Honolulu, HI: The Hawaiian Audubon Society. 19pp.

Boesch, D.F. and R.E. Turner. 1984. Dependence of fishery species on salt marshes. The role of food and refuge. Estuaries 7:460-468.

Cappo, M., Alongi, D., Williams, D. and Duke, N. 1995. A Review and Synthesis of Australian Fisheries Habitat Research. 3 volumes. Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra. - www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/afhr/afhr-00.html

Chambers, J.R. 1991, Coastal degradation and fish population losses. Marine Recreational Fisheries 14:45-51.

Cohen, A. N. and J. T. Carlton. 1998. Accelerating invasion rate in a highly invaded estuary. Science 279:555-558.

Committee on the Evaluation, Design, and Monitoring of Marine Reserves and Protected Areas in the United States, Ocean Studies Board, National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. National Research Council. National Academy Press, 2001. Online at www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=9994#toc, accessed August 6, 2010.

Daily, G. C., and P.A. Matson. 2008. Ecosystem services: From theory to implementation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105(28):9455-9456.

Dayton, P.K., S.F. Thrush, M.T. Agardy and R.J. Hofman.  1995. Environmental effects of marine fishing. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 5:205-232.

De Groot, R. 1992. Functions of Nature. Amsterdam: Wolters-Noordhoff.

Deegan, L. and R.N. Buchsbaum. 2001. The effect of habitat loss and degradation on fisheries. In R.N. Buchsbaum, W.E. Robinson and J. Pederson (eds.) The Decline of Fisheries Resources in New England: Evaluating the Impact of Overfishing, Contamination, and Habitat Degradation. Amherst, MA: U.Mass. Press.

Elliot, M. and K.L. Hemmingway (Eds). 2002. Fishes in Estuaries. Wiley-Blackwell.

Granek, E.F., S. Polasky, C.V. Kappel, D.J. Reed, D.M. Stoms, E.W. Kock, C.J. Kennedy, L.A. Cramer, S.D. Hacker, E.D. Barbier, S. Aswani, M. Ruckelshaus, G.M.E. Perillo, B.R. Silliman, N. Muthiga, D Bael, and E. Wolanski. 2010. Ecosystem services as a common language for coastal ecosystem-based management. Conservation Biology 24(1): 207-216.

Kennedy, V., R. Twilley, J.A. Leypas, J.H. Cowan, and S.R. Hare.. 2002. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems and Global Climate change: Potential Effects on U.S. Resources. Arlington, VA: Pew Center on Global Climate Change. pp. 1-52.

Fonseca, M.S., W.J. Kenworthy, and G.W. Thayer. 1991. Seagrass beds: nursery for coastal species. Marine Recreational Fisheries 14:141-147.

Hatcher, B., R. Johannes, and A. Robinson.  1989.  Review of the research relevant to the conservation of shallow tropical marine ecosystems.  Oceanography and Marine Biology 27:337-414.

Heck, K.L. Jr., D.A. Nadeau and R. Thomas. 1997. The nursery role of seagrass beds. Gulf of Mexico Science 15:50-54.

Hobbie, J.E. (ed.) 2000. Estuarine Science: A Synthetic Approach to Research and Practice. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Holmlund, C.M. and Hammer, M. (1999).  Ecosystem services generated by fish populations.  Ecological Economics 29:

Kaufman, L. and P.K. Dayton. 1997. Impacts of marine resource extraction on ecosystem services and sustainability. Pages 275-293 In G. Daily, (ed.) Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Millennium Assessment. 2005. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Three Volumes available at www.millenniumassessment.org, accessed August 6, 2010.

Nordlie, F.G. 2003. Fish communities of estuarine salt marshes of eastern North America, and comparisons with temperate estuaries of other continents. Rev. Fish Biol. 13:281-325.

Palumbi, S.R., P.A. Sandifer, J.D. Allan, M.W. Beck, D.G. Fautin, M.J. Fogarty, B.S. Halpern, L.S. Incze, J. Leong, E. Norse, J.J. Stachowicz, and D.H. Wall. 2009. Managing for ocean biodiversity to sustain marine ecosystem services. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(4):204-211.

Simenstad, C.A., S.B. Brandt, A. Chalmers, R. Dame, L.A. Deegan, R. Hodson, and E.D. Houde.  1999. Habitat-biotic interactions. Pages427-460 in J.E. Hobbie (ed.) 1999. Estuarine Science. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Tallis, H., P.S. Levin, M. Ruckelshaus, S.E. Lester, K.L. McLeod, D.L. Fluharty, and B.S. Halpern. 2010. The many faces of ecosystem-based management: Making the process work today in real places. Marine Policy 34(2): 340-348.

Selected Web Sites

Educational Materials/Modules

Articles, Books, and Other Publications

Agardy, T., P. Bridgewater , M.P. Crosby, J. Day , P.K. Dayton , R. Kenchington, D. Laffoley , P. McConney, P.A. Murray, J.E. Parks, and L. Peau. 2003. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 13(4): 353 – 367.

Agardy, T. 2000.  Effects of fisheries on marine ecosystems: a conservationist’s perspective. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 761-765.

Agardy, T. 1999.  Creating havens for marine life. Issues in Science and Technology Fall 1999:37-44.

Agardy, T.S.  1997. Marine Protected Areas and Ocean Conservation.  Austin, TX: R.E. Landes Co.,(Academic Press).

Agardy, T., A. Hanson, and R. Perez Gil. 1999. Securing the Continent’s Biological Wealth: Towards Effective Biodiversity Conservation in North America. Commission on Environmental Cooperation, Montreal, 147 pp.

Beck, M., K.L. Heck, K.W. Able, D.L. Childers, D.B. Eggleston, B.M. Gillanders, B. Halpern, C.G. Hays, K. Hoshino, T.J. Minello, R.J. Orth, P.F. Sheridan, and M.P. Weinstein.  2001. The identification, conservation, and management of estuarine and marine nurseries for fish and invertebrates. BioScience 51(8):6-33-641.

Bell, J.D., A.S. Steffe, and M. Westoby. 1988. Location of seagrass beds in estuaries: Effects on associated fish and decapods. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology 122:127-146.

Birkeland, C. and A.M. Frielander. 2002. The importance of refuges for reef fish replenishment in Hawai’i. The Hawaiian Audubon Society, Honolulu 19pp.

Boesch, D.F. and R.E. Turner. 1984. Dependence of fishery species on salt marshes. The role of food and refuge. Estuaries 7:460-468.

Brinson, M.M. 1993. Changes in the functioning of wetlands along environmental gradients. Wetlands 13:65-74.

Chambers, J.R. 1991, Coastal degradation and fish population losses. Marine Recreational Fisheries 14:45-51.

Cohen, A. N. and J. T. Carlton. 1998. Accelerating invasion rate in a highly invaded estuary. Science 279:555-558.

Colburn, T., D. Dumanoski, and J.P. Myers. 1996. Our Stolen Future. New York, NY: Dutton Press.

Costanza, R., R. d’Arget, R. de Groot, S. Faber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, T.V. O’Neill, J. Paruelo, R. Sutton, and M. Van den Belt. 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253-260.

Daily, G.C., S. Alexander, P.R. Ehrlich, L. Goulder, J. Lubchenco, P.A. Matson, H.A. Mooney, S. Postel, S.H. Schneider, D. Tilman, G.M. Woodwell. 1997. Ecosystem services: Benefits supplied to human societies by natural ecosystems. Issues in Ecology 2:2-15.

D’Avanzo, C., J. Kremer and S.C. Wainwright. 1996. Ecosystem production and respiration in response to eutrophication in shallow temperate estuaries. Marine Ecology Progress Series 141:263-274

Dayton, P.K., S.F. Thrush, M.T. Agardy and R.J. Hofman.  1995. Environmental effects of marine fishing. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 5:205-232.

De Groot, R. 1992. Functions of Nature. Amsterdam: Wolters-Noordhoff.

Deegan, L.A. 1993. Nutrient and energy transport between estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems by fish migration. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 50:74-79.

Deegan, L. and R.N. Buchsbaum. 2001. The effect of habitat loss and degradation on fisheries. In R.N. Buchsbaum, W.E. Robinson and J. Pederson (eds.) The Decline of Fisheries Resources in New England: Evaluating the Impact of Overfishing, Contamination, and Habitat Degradation. Amherst, MA: U.Mass. Press.

Deegan, L.A., A Wright, S.G. Ayvazian, J.T. Finn, H. Golden, R.R. Merson and J. Harrison. 2001. Nitrogen loading alters seagrass ecosystem structure and support of higher trophic levels. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Systems.12(2): 193 – 212.

Duarte, C. 1995. Submerged aquatic vegetation in relation to different nutrient regimes. Ophelia 41:87-112.

Dugan, J. and G. Davis. 1993. Applications of marine refugia to coastal fisheries management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50:2029-2042.

Edgar, G.J. and C. Shaw. 1995. The production and trophic ecology of shallow-water fish assemblages in southern Australia, I: Species richness, size structure and production of fishes in Western Port, Victoria. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 194:53-81.

Elliot, M. and K.L. Hemmingway (Eds). 2002. Fishes in Estuaries. Wiley-Blackwell.

FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN).  1993. Marine Fisheries and the Law of the Sea: A Decade of Change. Fisheries Circular 853. Rome

Fogarty, M.J. and S.A. Murawski. 1998. Large scale disturbance and the structure of marine systems: fishery impacts on Georges Bank. Ecological Applications 8(1) S:S6-S22.

Fonseca, M.S., W.J. Kenworthy, and G.W. Thayer. 1991. Seagrass beds: nursery for coastal species. Marine Recreational Fisheries 14:141-147.

Foster. M.S., A.P. deVogelaere, C. Harrold, J.S. Pearse and A.B. Thum. 1988. Causes of spatial and temporal patterns in rocky intertidal communities of central and southern California.  Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 9:1-45.

Gaines, S. and M. Bertness.  1992.  Dispersal of juveniles and variable recruitment in sessile marine species.  Nature 360:579-580.

Gray, C.A., D.J. McElligott, and R.C. Chick. 1996. Intra- and inter-estuary differences in assemblages of fishes with shallow seagrass and bare sand. Marine and Freshwater Research 47:723-735.

Gregory, R.S. and J.T. Anderson. 1997. Substrate selection and use of protective cover by juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in inshore waters off Newfoundland. Marine Ecology Progress Series 146:9-20.

Hager, S.W. and L.E. Schemel. 1992. Sources of nitrogen and phosphorus to Northern San Francisco Bay. Estuaries 15(1):40-52

Hatcher, B., R. Johannes, and A. Robinson.  1989.  Review of the research relevant to the conservation of shallow tropical marine ecosystems.  Oceanography and Marine Biology 27:337-414.

Heck, K.L. Jr. and L.B. Crowder. 1991. Habitat structure and predator prey interactions in vegetated aquatic systems. Pages 282-299 in S.S. Bell, E.D. McCoy, and H.R. Mushinsky, eds. Habitat Structure: The Physical Arrangement of Objects in Space. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall.

Heck, K.L. Jr., D.A. Nadeau and R. Thomas. 1997. The nursery role of seagrass beds. Gulf of Mexico Science 15:50-54.

Hobbie, J.E. (ed.) 2000. Estuarine Science: A Synthetic Approach to Research and Practice. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Holmlund, C.M. and Hammer, M. (1999).  Ecosystem services generated by fish populations. Ecological Economics 29:

Hyrenbach, K.D., K.A. Forney, and P.K. Dayton. 2001. Marine protected areas and the management of pelagic systems. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems.

Isaksson, I., L. Phil and J. van Montfrans. 1994. Eutrophication-related changes in macro vegetation and foraging of young cod (Gadus morhua L.): a mesocosm experiment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 177:203-217.

Jackson, J.B.C. (2001).  What was natural in the coastal oceans?  PNAS 98(10):5411-5418.

Jackson, J.B.C. et al. (2001). Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293:629-638.

Jameson, S.C. M.V. Erdmann, G.R. Gibson, Jr. and K.W. Potts. 2001. Development of Biological Criteria for Coral Reef Ecosystem Assessment. Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Kaufman, L. and P.K. Dayton. 1997. Impacts of marine resource extraction on ecosystem services and sustainability. Pages 275-293 In G. Daily, (ed.) Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Kennedy, V., R. Twilley, J.A. Leypas, J.H. Cowan, and S.R. Hare.. 2002. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems and Global Climate change: Potential Effects on U.S. Resources. Arlington, VA: Pew Center on Global Climate Chang. pp. 1-52.

Kulczycki, G.R. , W.G. Nelson and R.W. Virnstein. 1981. The relationship between fish abundance and algal biomass in a seagrass drift algae community. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 12:341-347.

Little, E.J. Jr. 1977. Observations on recruitment of postlarval spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, to the south Florida coast. Florida Marine Research Publications 29:1-358

Mann, K.H. and J.R.N. Lazier. 1991. Dynamics of Marine Ecosystems. Boston, MA: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 

Marx, W.  1967. The Frail Ocean. New York, NY: Coward-McCann.

McNeely, J.A. 1988. Economics and Biodiversity: Developing and Using Economic Incentives to Conserve Biological Resources. Gland Switzerland: IUCN.

Micheli, F. and C.H. Peterson. 1999. Estuarine vegetated habitats as corridors for predator movements. Conservation Biology 13:869-881.

Miller, M.J., L.B. Crowder, J.A. Rice, and E.A. Marschall. 1998. Larval size and recruitment mechanisms in fishes: toward a conceptual framework. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 45:1657-1670.

Minello, T. 1999.  Nekton densities in shallow estuarine habitats of Texas and Louisiana and the identification of essential fish habitat. Pages 43-75 in L.R. Benaka, ed. Essential Fish Habitat and Rehabilitation. Bethesda MD: American Fisheries Society.

Murray, S.N., R.F. Ambrose, J.A. Bohnsack, W. Botsford, M.H. Carr, G.E. Davis, P.K. Dayton, D. Gotshall, D.R. Gunderson, M.A. Hixon, J. Lubchenco, M. Mangel, A. MacCall, D.A. McCardle, J.C. Ogden, J. Roughgarden, R.M. Starr, M.J. Tegner and M.M. Yoklavich. 1999. No-take reserve networks: sustainable fishery populations and marine ecosystems. Fisheries Management Perspectives. Fisheries (AFS) 24(11):11-25

National Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. 1999.  Report of the Committee on Ecosystem Management for Sustainable Marine Fisheries. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity: A Research Agenda for the Nation. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. 1999. Sustaining Marine Fisheries. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. 2000. Committee report on the causes and management of coastal eutrophication. R.W. Howarth (chair). Washington DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

Nordlie, F.G. 2003. Fish communities of estuarine salt marshes of eastern North America, and comparisons with temperate estuaries of other continents. Rev. Fish Biol. 13:281-325.

Norse, E.A. (ed.) 1993. Global Marine Biological Diversity: A Strategy for Building Conservation Into Decision Making. Washington DC: Island Press.

Oldfield, M.L. 1984. The Value of Conserving Genetic Resources. US Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

Perakis, S.S. and L.O. Hedin. 2002. Nitrogen loss from unpolluted South American forests mainly via dissolved organic compounds. Nature 415:416-419.

Peterson, C.H. and J. Lubchenco. 1997. On the value of ecosystem services to society. Pages 177-194 In G. Daily (ed.) Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, NY.

PISCO (Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans). 2002. The unknown coast. Coastal Connections 1:6-13.

President’s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. 1998. Teeming with Life: Investing in Science to Understand and Use America’s Living Capital. Washington, DC

Pringle, C. 2000. Threats to US public lands from cumulative hydrological alteration outside of their boundaries. Ecological Applications 10(4):971-989.

Roberts, C.M. 1997a .  Connectivity and Management of Caribbean Coral Reefs.  Science 278(5342):1454-1457.

Roberts, C.M. 1997 b. Ecological advice for the global fisheries crisis. TREE 12(1): 35-38.

Russ, G. and A. Alcala. 1998. Natural fishing experiments in marine reserves 1983-1993: community and trophic responses. Coral Reefs 17:383-397.

Russell-Hunter, W.D.  1970. Aquatic Productivity. New York, NY: MacMillan Publishing Co.

Simenstad, C.A., S.B. Brandt, A. Chalmers, R. Dame, L.A. Deegan, R. Hodson, and E.D. Houde.  1999. Habitat-biotic interactions. In: J.E. Hobbie, J.E. (Ed.) Estuarine Science. Washington DC: Island Press. pp. 427-460

Simpson, R.D. and N.L. Christensen, Jr. 1997. Ecosystem function & human activities: reconciling economics and ecology. New York, NY: Chapman & Hall.

Teal, J. 2001. Quoted in S. Earle, Atlas of the Ocean. Washington DC: National Geographic Society. pp. 66-67

Teal, J. and M. Teal. 1969. Life and Death of  a Saltmarsh. New York, NY: National Audubon Society/ Ballantine Books.

Thayer, G. 1999. Composition of larval, juvenile, and small adult fishes relative to changes in environmental condition in Florida Bay. Estuaries 22(2B):431-444.

Villa, F., L. Tunesi, and T. Agardy. 2001. Optimal zoning of a marine protected area: the case of the Asinara National Marine Reserve of Italy. Conservation Biology 16(2):515-526

Ward, T.J., D. Heinemann, and N. Evans. 2001. The Role of Reserves as Fisheries Management Tools. Canberra, Australia: Bureau of Rural Sciences.

Ward, T.J., M.A. Vanderklift, A.O. Nicholls and R.A. Kenchington. 1999. Selecting marine reserves using habitats and species assemblages as surrogates for biological diversity. Ecological Applications 9:691-698.

Weinstein, M.P. and D.A. Kreeger (Eds.) 2000. Concepts and Controversies in Tidal Marsh Ecology. Kluwer Academic Press

Whitfield, J. 2002. Clean forests prompt pollution rethink. Nature: Science Update 24 January 2002

Williams, D.M. 1991. Patterns and processes in the distribution of coral reef fishes. Pages 437-474 in P. Sale, ed. The Ecology of Fishes on Coral Reefs. New York, NY: Academic Press.

Wilson, K., K.W. Able and K.L. Heck, Jr. 1990. Predation rates on juvenile blue crabs in estuarine nursery habitats: evidence for the importance of macroalgae (Ulva lactuca) Marine Ecology Progress Series 58:243-251.

Woodard, C. 2000. Ocean’s End: Travels Through Endangered Seas.  Basic Books, NY NY

Zwerdling, D. 2002. Nature’s Revenge: Louisiana’s Vanishing Wetlands. Part 1 Sinking in to the Sea. NPR. Sept. Online at www.americanradioworks.org/features/wetlands/index.html, accessed on August 6, 2010.

Web Sites